Cancer: Causes, Treatment, and Prevention

By | December 1, 2021


Cancer: Causes, Treatment, and Prevention

Written By MEHRU

What is cancer? Which are the signs and symptoms of cancer? What do we need to know about cancer? How to prevent cancer?

Cancer is the uncontrolled multiplication of abnormal cells in the body. Cancer progresses when the body’s immune mechanism stops working.

Under normal conditions, the cell grows and divides to form new cells, and old cells are replaced by new cells as they become damaged or age.

In cancer cells, the growth continues with the old cells, even when they are damaged, they do not die and they also continue to generate new cells, which is abnormal.

Cancer is just the general name of a disease that has many types. When these extra cells form a lot of tissue, it is called a tumor.

Not all cancers form tumors. Cancerous tumors are of two types: Benign and malignant. In the malignant tumor form, cells can spread or attack nearby tissues.

As these tumors grow, some of the cancer cells can break off and travel to other organs in the body through the lymphatic system and blood, forming a new tumor distant from the original tumor.

Whereas benign tumors are large tumors that are not dangerous and do not spread or attack nearby tissues.

When benign tumors are removed from the body, it usually does not grow back, whereas malignant tumors do so occasionally. However, benign brain tumors can be dangerous.

There are three stages of cancer and cancer treatment is possible in the early stages of cancer, in the last stage it can be difficult to cure cancer.

Causes of cancer:

There is a lot of research into cancer. No particular cause of cancer has been found, but there are many factors that can contribute to cancer.

Some of the factors can be controlled to prevent cancer, while some of the factors, such as age and family history, are impossible to control.

A family history of some cancers can be a sign of hereditary cancer syndrome.

Some of the following risk factors
Age factor

for people who are exposed to cancer, advanced age is the highest risk factor, as according to research studies, there is a median age for cancer diagnosis, which is 66 years.

This means that some may develop cancer before this age group and some may develop cancer after this age.

There is a specific median age for different types of cancer, as the median age after the diagnosis of breast cancer is said to be 61 years. For the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, the age is 68 years.

For lung cancer, it is 70 years. But some are not avoidable, especially if they are present in the air we breathe.

The water we drink regularly, and food. Some substances called carcinogens are not necessary and will cause cancer.

Many other influences play a role in cancer, such as the duration of exposure and the person’s genetic composition.

But there is no age limit for the disease, it can occur at any age. For example, bone cancer is most commonly found in people under the age of 20.

And other cancers such as leukemia are mainly detected in children and adolescents under the age of 20 in about 10% of cases.

Other cancers, such as neuroblastoma, are found mainly in children or adolescents than in adults.

Alcohol consumption:

People who are addicted or who drink more than a moderate amount are more likely to suffer from cancers of the liver, mouth, larynx, throat, and breast. The risk is high for those who drink and also for tobacco addicts.

Carcinogens in the environment:

There are some carcinogens present in the environment that can damage DNA.

Exposure to these substances as chemicals in tobacco smoke or harmful radiation such as ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun.

People can take steps to avoid exposure to these harmful agents.

Chronic Inflammation:

Inflammation is a physiological reaction that is normal and helps heal damaged tissues. The inflammatory process ends when the tissue is repaired.

In chronic inflammation, the inflammatory process can begin without damage and never end. Chronic inflammation can be started by endless infections, for normal tissue, there are abnormal immune reactions.

Chronic inflammation can lead to DNA damage, which in turn leads to cancer. For example, people with chronic inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn’s disease, may have an increased colorectal cancer.

Some infectious agents:

Some infectious agents like viruses, bacteria, and parasites can cause cancer in people suffering from it or also increase the risk of cancer. Certain viruses can interfere with the normal control of cell growth and cell division.

Some viruses such as hepatitis B and hepatitis C, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which are known to cause AIDS, increase the risk of cancer by attacking the body’s immune system.

Exposure to radiation:

Some rays such as X-rays, gamma rays have ionizing radiation, which is very powerful and can damage DNA and cause cancer.


some cancers are inherited, but most cancers are obviously not related to the genes we inherit. Changes in the gene that begins in a cell during an individual’s lifestyle cause cancer.

Types of cancer

There are many types of cancer, some of the most common cancers are listed below:

  • Anal cancer
  • Breast cance
  • Cervical cancer
  • Liver cancer
  • Stomach cancer
  • Skin cancer
  • Cervical cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Gallbladder cancer
  • Eye cancer

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Cancer symptoms

These are some general signs and symptoms of cancer. If you have them, it does not mean that you are suffering from cancer.

As they are also seen in other conditions, but if these symptoms are long-lasting and get worse, visit your doctor to find out the reason.

Sudden weight loss:

When there is a sudden weight loss (more than 5 kg) for no reason, this can be the first alarming sign of cancer.

As the first symptom of cancer, it is most often unexplained weight loss. This is seen mainly in cancer of the pancreas and stomach.


It is one of the most common symptoms of cancer and is more common when there is a spread of cancer and is experienced mainly during cancer treatment as it affects the body’s immune system.

Fever may be the first sign of cancer like leukemia.

Mild fatigue:

This is seen as cancer progresses, there is fatigue with extreme fatigue that does not improve even with rest. Some cancers cause unusual blood loss that can even lead to fatigue.


Pain can be an early symptom of some cancers, such as bone cancer or testicular cancer. In the case of a brain tumor, there may be a headache.

That does not improve with treatment, or the headache may last without relief.

In ovarian or colon cancer, there may be a symptom of back pain. Cancer pain may show signs that cancer has already begun to spread.

Skin changes:

Along with skin cancer, there are other cancers that affect the skin, such as darkening of the skin, itching, or unusual redness.

Intestinal change: there may be constipation or prolonged diarrhea that must not be cured or pain during bowel movements or urination may be a sign of colon or bladder cancer.

Long-term wounds:

Wounds that do not heal quickly can be an alarming sign of cancer. Especially with skin cancer, there may be wounds on the skin that bleed a lot and do not heal.

Or in the case of oral cancer, there are sores in the mouth that do not heal, it is advisable to take appropriate measures to prevent cancer.

White spots in the mouth:

If there are white spots on the tongue or in the mouth, they are called leukoplakia, which is a precancerous stage and can lead to cancer of the mouth if left untreated.


Unusual bleeding in your cough or stool may be an early or advanced sign of lung or colon cancer. Unusual bleeding from any hole is a sign of cancer.

Lumps on the skin:

There may be a thick mass or a lump felt on the skin in some parts of the body; Usually in breast cancer there is a lump that can be felt in the breast that can increase in size.

Other symptoms of cancer are specific to a particular type of cancer.

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Cancer treatment

Since everyone knows about cancer and its power, cancer treatment depends on the stage.

There are many alternative therapies that can be tried in conjunction with cancer treatment that can help cancer patients improve their immunity and help relieve their symptoms:

Therapy Nutrition with chemotherapy may be chosen, as this can help improve the person’s immunity.

There are many complementary therapies that focus on increasing relaxation and reducing stress.

They can help calm your emotions, ease nervousness, and increase your sense of health and happiness. Like the classic treatment of homeopathy and acupuncture.

There is growing evidence that certain complementary therapies help control some of the symptoms and harmful effects of cancer and its treatments.

For example, acupuncture treatment can help relieve disease caused by certain chemotherapy drugs. Acupuncture also helps relieve symptoms of postoperative lymph nodes in the neck.

Therapies are preferred by many patients because they are non-toxic and more natural.

Certain types of complementary medications, such as specific herbal remedies, can increase side effects.

Staying optimistic improves health having an optimistic outlook is an important part of cancer treatment. Although your cancer may be difficult to cure.

You must have the confidence to cure it. This is a normal and very vital part of cancer treatment.

Cancer prevention

Cancer is a life-threatening disease and mostly it is incurable in later stages. These are the ways that can help prevent cancer and its progress.

  • Always avoid tobacco in all its forms.
  • Struggle to Maintain the weight
  • You need to be physically active regularly.
  • Should eat a diet rich in balanced nutrition with enough fruits and vegetables (a healthy diet).
  • Avoid alcohol completely or limit your consumption.
  • You need to protect your skin from UV rays.
  • Know your family history and health risks.
  • You must go for regular medical check-ups and cancer check-ups.
  • You should not avoid the signs of a long-term illness.

Is there anything else you’d like to know more about and wish was inserted in this article? Let us know in the comments below!

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